28 de Enero 2013. Aniversario 160 del Natalicio de José Julián Martí Pérez.
(La Habana, Cuba, 28 de enero de 1853 - Dos Ríos, Cuba, 19 de mayo de 1895) fue un político republicano democrático, pensador, periodista, filósofo y poeta cubano de origen español , creador del Partido Revolucionario Cubano y organizador de la Guerra del 1895 o Guerra Necesaria. Perteneció al movimiento literario del modernismo.
Además de destacado ideólogo y político, José Martí fue uno de los más grandes poetas hispanoamericanos y la figura más destacada de la etapa de transición al modernismo, que en América supuso la llegada de nuevos ideales artísticos.
(January 28, 1853 - May 19, 1895) is a Cuban national hero and an important figure in Latin American literature. In his short life he was a poet, an essayist, a journalist, a revolutionary philosopher, a translator, a professor, a publisher, and a political theorist. Most North Americans are familiar with his lyrics for the song "Guantanamera." He was also a member of the Cuban Freemasons and a supporter of La Orden de los Caballeros de la Luz (The Order of the Kinights of the Light) founded in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in 1873. Through his writings and political activity, he became a symbol for Cuba's bid for independence against Spain in the 19th century, and is referred to as the "Apostle of Cuban Independence." He also fought against the threat of United States expansionism into Cuba. From adolescence, he dedicated his life to the promotion of liberty, political independence for Cuba and intellectual independence for all Spanish Americans; his death was used as a cry for Cuban independence from Spain by both the Cuban revolutionaries and those Cubans previously reluctant to start a revolt.
Born in Havana, Martí began his political activism at an early age. He would travel extensively in Spain, Latin America, and the United States raising awareness and support for the cause of Cuban independence. His unification of the Cuban émigré community, particularly in Florida, was crucial to the success of the Cuban War of Independence against Spain. He was a key figure in the planning and execution of this war, as well as the designer of the Cuban Revolutionary Party and its ideology. He died in military action on May 19, 1895.